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圖說北京舊磚頭的奇幻旅程

06/04/2012

最近友人CG和他在深圳某都市設計工作室的同事準備在米蘭的一個建築設計博物館開一個展,主題是北京的Informal Infrastructure。CG 決定要以廢品回收作為展覽的切入點,並向我借一些關於舊磚回收再利用的田野資料。說實在的,我覺得Informality不是一個很好用的概念,也從來不懂什麼什麼是Infrastructure。不過大概是最近論文寫得很煩,也很好奇設計工作者會拼貼出什麼不一樣的視野,所以就答應了。

小弟的論文講的其實就只有兩個概念: Productive Waste 與 Centrality of the Periphery。不過學術界的概念工具作為菁英們證明自身存在價值的春藥總是無可避免的導致一般大眾讀者的昏睡或嘔吐感,所以CG和我決定以看圖說故事的方式溝通。CG 作為一個建築設計與紀錄片工作者必然有他自己的故事想講,所以我也不知道我提供的資料最後會被什麼樣的敘述方式呈現。不過既然圖和文字都有了,我想就放上blog娛樂大家一下。這北京舊磚頭的奇幻旅程我到現在都還是覺得很妙。

p.s. 一堆文法錯誤,沒空改,請見諒。

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1. 1950年代的清河農場

1. A great portion of the bricks that constitute residences and work unit compounds in today’s Beijing was produced during the socialist period (1949-1978) in labor camps. One of the largest labor camps in Beijing was Qinghe (Clear Water) Work Farm, which is shown in this picture. In between 1950 and 1954, the Qinghe Work Farm manufactured 288,694,000 pieces of bricks. By 1956, the Beijing city government, with all the labor camps under its administration, had become the second largest brick provider in the city.

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2. 在清河農場磚窯工作的政治犯

2. Prisoners in labor camps were those labeled as “rightists” or “counter-revolutionary.” They were the landlord class or people worked for the Nationalist Government led by Chiang Kai-shek. After the “100 Flower Bloom Campaign" in 1958, many intellectuals in universities in Beijing were sent to labor camps for reeducation. In other words, bricks were produced by the politically marginalized. This picture shows laborers in the Qinghe Work Farm excavating earthwork, which was to be sent to furnace to make bricks.

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3. 西直門拆除 (1969)

3. On the contrary, the recycling of bricks (and other types of demolition waste) in the socialist period was carried out by the social mainstream. The Beijing City Wall, the largest single structure ever demolished in Beijing, for instance, was disassembled by personnel from People’s Liberation Army, employees of work units, and college students and normal Beijing residents mobilized the the City Government. The picture shows Xizhi Gate, part of the City Wall, under demolition in 1969.

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4. 王棟岑的詩 (1960.4.6)

4. This is a poem by Wang Dongcen, a student in the Beijing College of Building Engineering who participated in the demolition of the City Wall in April, 1960. He was correct to write that demolished City Wall was “of service to socialism.” Salvaged stone bricks and earthworks from the Wall was later put to construct projects such as railway stations, sports arenas, and underground nuclear shelter. Salvaged bricks thus helped to construct places that were economically and politically central to the socialist modern.

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5. 東小口突擊建房

5. While before the economic reform salvaged bricks and other building materials contributed to the socialist modernity, in the reform period, salvaged bricks lubricate the process of urban expansion. They are used by relocation households in urban villages to expand housing properties. Such a practice, known as “tuji jianfang” (突擊建房) allows relocation households to negotiate better compensation deals with the municipal government. In other words, bricks produced by prisoners in labor camps now become bargaining chips of urban villagers. Many buildings of tuji jianfang have no other useful function other than marking the boundaries of relocation households’ newly created properties. This extra floor built on top of an existing house, for example, was constructed without a stair. Therefore there is no access to that new floor.

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6. 百善鎮突擊建房

6. Most tuji jianfang projects are complete in a rush. This is because relocation households have to finish their project before the government come to evaluate the size of their housing properties. The owner of this wall structure, for example, started the project with tiles, which were the first available to her. The old bricks, which she got later, were put on top of the tiles. The result was a reverse image of a normal residence house: Bricks on top of tiles.

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7. 東三旗突擊建房

7. But there are exceptions. When urban villagers learn about village relocation through rumors, a situation where they won’t be certain about the timing of the relocation project, old bricks are put to construct rental properties. Rental properties allow them to collect rent, and therefore ensure a return of investment in cases when a relocation project does not proceed or is delayed. In this picture, villagers of Dongsanqi used salvaged bricks to build a multi-story structure. The first floor was rented out to small migrant businesses, while the remaining floors were rental apartments. The building was painted in dark red and yellow, a color scheme that resembled emperors’ residence in the Forbidden City. It meant to tell the municipal government who was the boss of the village.

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8. 敬財神 (檢察日報, 2008.12.23)

8. Tuji jianfang projects profoundly shapes the business of building demolition. Because old bricks are constantly in high demand, demolition companies compete to win over projects that involved the demolition of brick-made buildings. Relocation companies become the beneficiary, as they can make a profit by selling the right to demolish buildings to demolition companies. This cartoon shows a demolition company bribing a relocation company for a demolition project.

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9. 紅軍營拆遷

9. In addition, in order to avoid damages to materials, demolition companies heavily rely on manual labor for the demolition of brick-made buildings. Demolition companies are in fact one of the major employers of the city’s rural migrants.

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10. 舊磚頭的流動示意圖以及建築拆除包工體制

10. Demolition companies do not directly hire workers. Instead, they subcontract projects to “second bosses” (二老闆), who are the person assemble the workforce. Such a system of labor subcontracting allow demolition companies overcome the problem of unproductive labor, where the size of demolition projects vary in size. Second bosses and demolition workers are all rural migrants, who, due to the household registration system, do not have access to many of the social welfare benefit that urban residents have, such as health insurance and education for kids. In other words, in the reform era, bricks are recycled by the socially, politically, and economically marginalized group.

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11. 小結: 一個關於北京舊磚頭的歷史地理的粗淺分析

11. A Historical Geography of Old Bricks in Beijing

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